Charge Of Mn In Manganese Oxides & Manganates

If you were asked to put a charge to Mn ion, what would it be?

Manganese (Mn) can exhibit multiple oxidation states. You have most likely seen it in +2, +3, +4 states or maybe higher. As a transition metal, it is appropriate that it has more than one oxidation state. It also forms several complex ions too.

The charge of manganese is beyond the figure and the sign. It influences its application across different fields and industries. The charge also influences its uses in biological environments. In essence, the charge of manganese is worth looking into.

Physical and chemical of manganese (Mn)

  • Manganese is one of the transition metals in period 4, group 7
  • It has an atomic number of 25 and an atomic weight of 55
  • It has an electronic configuration of [Ar]3d54s2 with 2, 8, 13 & 2 electrons in its shells
  • Manganese is a hard, brittle, silvery metal that is usually found in combination with iron in some minerals
  • This metal is a solid at room temperature. It has a boiling point of 3,742°F (2,061°C) and a melting point of 2,275°F (1,246°C).
  • Solid manganese has a density of 7.21 g/cm3. Near its melting point, its density drops to 5.95 g/cm3
  • Manganese is durable, strong, and highly resistant to wear. This is one of the reasons why it used industrially for alloying
  • It is the second most abundant transition metal in the Earth’s crust. Manganese shares a lot of similarities with iron but is harder and more brittle
  • In combination with oxygen, manganese forms manganese oxide which is a strong oxidizing agent. It is also useful in the production of glass, ceramics, and fertilizers. Also, manganese sulfate is a very useful fungicide

What is the charge of manganese when it forms ions?

Manganese can lose two, three, or four electrons to form ions with +2, +3, or +4 charge.

Mn2+ is the most common and stable cation. Mn4+ is seen in some anions and compounds of manganese.

What is the effective nuclear charge of Mn?

I’ll show you how to determine the effective nuclear charge, Zeff, of manganese using the formula below:

Zeff = Z – S, where Z is the nuclear charge and S is the shielding constant

Step 1: Write out the electronic configuration of manganese


Step 2: Find the shielding constant of manganese using Slater’s rule. Assign values to electrons in the various orbitals.

The inner electrons in 1s22s22p63s23p6 contribute 1 to the shielding constant, electrons in 3d5 contribute 0.85 and the single electron of concern in 4s2 contributes 0.35 to the shielding constant.

Step 3: Find the product and overall sum

= (1 x 18) + (0.85 x 5) + (0.35 x 1)

= 18 + 4.25 + 0.35

S = 23

Step 4: Find Zeff using the formula

Zeff = Z – S

= 25 – 23

= 2

What is the charge of Mn in manganese oxides?

Some common manganese oxides and their respective charges are as follows:

  • manganese(II) oxide (MnO) —— +2
  • manganese(III) oxide (Mn2O3) —— +3
  • manganese dioxide (MnO2) —— +4
  • manganese(VI) oxide (MnO3) —— +3
  • manganese(VII) oxide (Mn2O7) —— +7

What is the charge of Mn in manganate?

The charge of the manganate, MnO42-, can be determined by substituting the charge of oxygen in the formula and equating it to the overall charge on the anion.

Mn + 4(-2) = -2

Mn – 8 = -2

Therefore, Mn = -2 + 8 = +6

What is the charge of Mn in permanganate?

In permanganate, MnO4, Mn ion is in its +7 oxidation state and this is most likely its charge.

Mn + 4(-2) = -1

Mn = -1 + 8 = +7

What are the reactions of Mn?

Reaction with air

Manganese would not readily react with oxygen and nitrogen in the air. However, when it does, it forms oxides and nitrides.

3Mn (s) + 2O2 (g) ———> Mn3O4 (s) (manganese II, III oxide)

3Mn (s) + N2 (g) ———> Mn3N2 (s) (manganese (II) nitride)

Reaction with acids

Manganese dissolves in sulphuric acid to form an aqueous solution of Mn2+, giving off hydrogen gas.

Mn (s) + H2SO4 (aq) ———> Mn2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + H2 (g)

Reaction with halogens

 Manganese reacts with halogens, like other metals, forming corresponding halides. The reactions are as follows:

  • Mn (s) + F2 (g) ———> MnF2 (s)
  • Mn (s) + Cl2 (g) ———> MnCl2 (s)
  • Mn (s) + Br2 (g) ———> MnBr2 (s)
  • Mn (s) + I2 (g) ———> MnI2 (s)

Reaction with hydroxide

Mn2+ ions form a white precipitate when they react with hydroxide ions.

Mn2+ (aq) + OH (aq) ———> Mn(OH)2 (s)

Applications of manganese ion

  • Manganese is a major metal in the production of steel and ferromanganese alloy
  • It is also employed in some brick-making processes where it acts as a colorant
  • Manganese works as a stabilizer in lithium-ion batteries. It serves as the cathode and helps to enhance storage capacity and preserve the life cycle
  • Manganese also finds application in the manufacture of bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints
  • Manganese-based compounds are powerful catalysts used in redox reactions, oxidation of organic compounds in environmental cleanup, and the production of petrochemicals
  • Furthermore, manganese is useful in water treatment. It helps to remove impurities and contaminants like hydrogen sulfide from drinking water and wastewater
  • Manganese is one of the essential micronutrients plants need for growth and development. It plays vital roles in the photosynthetic process, enzyme activation, and nitrogen metabolism
  • Manganese-based fertilizers are some of the most powerful fertilizers available
  • Beyond science and industrial applications, manganese is very important to human physiology. Manganese is a cofactor for some of the enzymes involved in bone formation, metabolism, and antioxidant defenses


What is the nuclear charge of manganese?

The nuclear of manganese is 25. Its nuclear is equal to the number of protons and its atomic number.

How many protons and neutrons are in manganese ions?

Manganese ion has 25 protons and 30 neutrons. The number of electrons in the ion depends on how many electrons it loses.

What elements does manganese react with?

Manganese reacts with halogens, oxygen, boron, carbon, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus. Manganese also reacts with phosphates, ammonia, and acids to form a variety of compounds.

What elements does manganese not react with?

Manganese reacts with most elements except hydrogen. It does not form hydrides and does not readily react with water.


Like various elements, the charge of manganese depends on its electronic structure and oxidation state. It depends on how electrons in the outermost shell are lost.

As a metal, manganese is most likely to lose electrons and form cations. However, it may form anions if it gains electrons. But, this is rare.

Understanding the charge of manganese leads beyond applications in the laboratory. It influences its application in various industries and medicine.

You can also learn about the charge of nickel, another transition metal in period 4.

Thanks for reading.