Titanium Charge: Zeff, Reactions, And Applications

Titanium (Ti) is a neutral atom until it loses or gains electrons in chemical reactions. When this happens, the neutral titanium carries a positive or negative charge. Depending on the type of reaction the metal enters and the compound it forms, titanium can exhibit multiple charges.

This metal is known and valued for its lightweight properties, strength, and resistance to corrosion. These properties are also seen in titanium compounds and titanium-based materials where the metal is charged (in ionic compounds).

Titanim’s charge shows its nature and application in great depth, and I’ll discuss that in this article.

Properties of titanium

  • Titanium is the second transition metal on the periodic table located in group 4, period 4, and the d-block
  • Titanium has an atomic number of 22 and a mass number of 48
  • It is a silvery grey-white lightweight metal with high strength and high resistance to corrosion in seawater, aqua regia, and chlorine
  • At room temperature, titanium has a melting point of 3,034°F (1,668°C), boiling point of 5,949°F (3,287°C), and density of 4.506 g/cm3. However, at its melting point, density drops to 4.11 g/cm3
  • Titanium has an electronic configuration of [Ar] 3d24s2 with 2,8,10, and 2 electrons in its shells
  • Titanium is not a rare metal. It is found in a wide variety of living things, water bodies, rocks, stars, meteorites, sand, clay, and other types of soil
  • It exists as rutile and ilmenite, two minerals that are widely distributed across the Earth’s crust
  • Pure titanium is gotten through the Kroll process. In this process, the mineral is treated at red heat with carbon and chloride, and the resulting titanium tetrachloride is reduced with molten magnesium to yield pure titanium metal
  • A common use of titanium metal is alloying. It can be alloyed with metals like iron, vanadium, and aluminum to produce lightweight, strong metal alloys used in the production of aerospace, jewelry, mobile phones, automotive parts, medical prostheses, dental implants, etc
  • Its high resistance to corrosion is another reason why it finds a lot of use across different industries
  • Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes, which are Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, and Ti-50. Ti-48 is the most abundant and stable isotope

What is the charge of titanium when it forms ions?

When titanium forms ions, it can have a +2, +3, or +4 charge. But, the +4 charge is the most common and stable. That is, the neutral atom may lose 2, 3, or 4 electrons to form ions Ti2+, Ti3+, or Ti4+ respectively.

What is the charge of titanium in titanium oxides?

Titanium oxides are compounds that contain titanium metal and oxygen. Titanium oxides and their respective charges are:

  • Titanium dioxide (titanium(IV) oxide), TiO2 ———> +4
  • Titanium monoxide (titanium(II) oxide), TiO ———> +2
  • Dititanium trioxide (titanium(III) oxide), Ti2O3 ———> +3

Other oxides of titanium are Ti3O, Ti2O, Ti3O5, Ti4O7, and Ti5O9. These oxides are rare and are formed at high temperatures in the presence of excess oxygen. These oxides have higher molecular weight and rare structural and electronic properties.

However, they find applications in the production of lithium-ion batteries and gas sensors.

What is the effective nuclear charge of a 4s2 electron in titanium?

The Zeff of an electron can be determined by the formula, Zeff = Z – S

Z is the nuclear charge = 22

S is the shielding constant, which will be determined using Slater’s rule.

Start by writing out the electronic configuration of Ti: 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2

Afterward, assign electron values to electrons in each orbital

Electrons in 1s22s22p6 have a shielding effect of 1, electrons in 3s23p63d2 have a shielding effect of 0.85, and the single electron in 4s2 has a shielding effect of 0.35

S = (10 x 1) + (10 x 0.85) + (1 x 0.35)

= 10 + 8.5 + 0.35

= 18.85

Zeff = Z – S

= 22 – 18.85

Zeff = 3.15

What are the reactions of titanium ions?

Combustion reaction

Titanium burns in the air with a white flame and forms titanium oxide, TiO2, and titanium nitride, TiN. In excess oxygen, it forms other titanium oxides with larger molecular weights.

Ti (s) + O2 (g) ———> TiO2 (s)

Ti (s) + N2 (g) ———> TiN (s)

Reaction with halogens

Like every other metal, titanium reacts with halogens to form their respective colored tetrahalides. The individual reactions are as follows:

  • Ti (s) + 2F2 (g) ———> TiF4 (s) [white]
  • Ti (s) + 2Cl2 (g) ———> TiCl4 (s) [colorless]
  • Ti (s) + 2Br2 (g) ———> TiBr4 (s) [orange]
  • Ti (s) + I2 (g) ———> TiI4 (s) [brown]

Reaction with acids and bases

Titanium readily reacts with acids to form titanium salts. For instance, it reacts with hydrochloric acid to form titanium chloride and hydrogen gas.

Ti (s) + 2HCl (aq) ———> TiCl2 + H2

When it reacts with aqueous hydrofluoric acid, it forms a complex anion and gives off hydrogen gas.

2Ti (s) + 12HF ———> 2[TiF6]3- (aq) + 3H2 (g) + 6H+ (aq)

Reaction with hydrogen

Titanium reacts with hydrogen gas to form titanium hydride. This hydride finds application in several hydrogen storage facilities.

Redox reaction

Titanium is oxidized to any of its oxides. In the presence of magnesium (as the reducing agent), it is pure titanium can be extracted from its ores.

Applications of titanium ion

Production of equipment

Titanium is highly resistant to corrosion. Titanium compounds are useful in the production of chemical industries and desalination plant equipment, especially electrical components that have frequent exposure to harsh environments.

Many medical equipment and instruments are produced with titanium compounds because of their resistance to corrosion and non-reactive nature.


Titanium forms strong, durable metal alloys that have high strength and are lightweight. These alloys are useful in the production of jet engines, aircraft components, medical implants, and automotive components.

The corrosion resistance and high-strength properties of titanium are also other reasons why manufacturers of dental and orthopedic implants prefer them to other metals.

Production of pigments

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important component of the white pigments used in paints, coatings, and cosmetics.  It is responsible for the brightness, opacity, and UV resistance in these materials.


Titanium ions have applications in battery technologies, such as lithium-ion batteries because they have the potential to increase their performance and stability. These metal ions are also employed in electroplating because of their durability and resistance to corrosion.

Water treatment

Titanium dioxide is a photocatalyst and an active agent in water purification. Also. Titanium-based anodes are utilized in electrochemical water treatment systems for the removal of contaminants.

Textile industry

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are added to fabrics used to make UV-blocking and sun-protective clothing.


Can titanium form anions?

Titanium is a metal and will form cations instead of anions. However, it can be a part of a complex anion [TiF6]3-, hexafluoridotitanate.

How many particles are in titanium ions?

The number of particles in a titanium ion will vary with the type of ion. A positively charged titanium ion will have more protons than electrons and a negatively charged titanium will have more electrons than protons.

Also, the number of protons in the particle depends on how many electrons the metal loses. For instance, the neutral titanium atom has 22 electrons, 22 protons, and 26 neutrons. Ti4+ has 22 protons, 18 electrons, and 26 neutrons. Ti2+ has 22 protons, 20 electrons, and 26 neutrons.

How many oxide ions will balance the titanium ion Ti4+?

Ti4+ needs two oxide ions to balance the +4 charge on the titanium ion. Each oxide has a -2 charge, which gives the two oxide ions an overall charge of -4. To create a balance, an equal number of negative ions must neutralize an equal number of positive ions.


Titanium can exhibit the +2, +3, and +4 charges. But Ti4+ is the most common and finds more applications than the other charged states. It is also more stable. Ti2+ and Ti3+ do exist but they are very rare.

In summary, titanium is naturally neutral but will form ions with a charge when it gets into a chemical reaction. The ion it forms largely depends on the chemical environment it is in.

Also, learn about the charge and applications of vanadium, the succeeding transition metal.

Thanks for reading.